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Vancomycin-clindamycin combination therapy for the treatment of gram-positive infections, in-vitro antagonism vs. clinical benefits

  • Zahra Sahraei
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Shervin shokouhi
    Affiliations
    Department of Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Shahab MeskiniMood
    Affiliations
    Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Saghar Barati
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Clinical pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjani Highway, Valiasr ave, Tehran 6153-14155, Iran.
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Search for articles by this author
      Bacterial infections caused by gram-positive strains remain one of the major causes of admission to intensive care units. Pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococci, and Streptococcus pneumonia have had significant roles in increasing the mortality and morbidity of diseases ranging from minor skin infections to bacteremia, endocarditis, necrotizing pneumonia, and toxic shock syndrome (TSS).
      • Woodford N
      • Livermore DM.
      Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria: a review of the global challenge.
      ,
      • Zhu Q
      • Yue Y
      • Zhu L
      • et al.
      Epidemiology and microbiology of gram-positive bloodstream infections in a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China: a 6-year retrospective study.
      Along with the development of antibiotics, drug resistance by the next generations of bacteria has created new challenges. Therefore, prescribing the appropriate antibacterial regimen is crucial, as the use of each antibiotic affects the bacterial ecology and the corresponding resistance to it. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant germs threatens practitioners’ ability to treat health problems and increases the cost of health care.
      • Woodford N
      • Livermore DM.
      Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria: a review of the global challenge.
      ,
      • Norrby R
      • Powell M
      • Aronsson B
      • et al.
      The bacterial challenge: time to react.
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