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Deciphering the role of aquaporins in metabolic diseases: A mini review

Published:February 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2021.10.029

      Abstract

      The expression of various isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs) in different tissues and organs of the body makes it a viable candidate for being responsible for maintaining cell stability and integrity as their involvement has been well documented in a number of pathophysiological conditions of the human body. Any alteration in the cellular environment brought about by these AQPs creates severe downstream effects like changes in cellular osmolality, volume, ionic composition, signaling pathways and even in the levels of intracellular second messengers and, as such, facilitates the occurrence of diseases like cancer. The altered equilibrium of water, extracellular ions and amino acid neurotransmitters caused by neuronal destruction and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases proposed the role of these AQPs in these diseased conditions as well. The association of AQPs in a variety of inflammatory processes like lung injury, brain edema, neuromyelitis optica, and colitis as manifested through their dysregulation both in animal and human diseases is truly an eye opener for their role in protection and reaction to various noxious stimuli including bacterial infection. Renal diseases like nephrogenic diabetes inspidus, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and acute kidney injury are some of the pathophysiological conditions related to malfunctioning of aquaporins. Besides, the malfunctioning of aquaglyceroporins like AQP7 and AQP9 makes them responsible for disorders like obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this review article, we present our current understanding of the role of AQPs in the causation of these metabolic disorders and how targeting them holds promising therapeutic potential for most of these diseases like cancer, renal diseases and even cardiovascular disorders.

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